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Re: Biofuels thread

Posted: Wed Dec 09, 2020 9:16 pm
by GRA
Enerkem proposes CAD$875-million biofuel plant in Varennes, Québec; 33 million gallons per year ... erkem.html

. . . Varennes Carbon Recycling (VCR) will produce biofuels and renewable chemicals made from non-recyclable residual materials as well as wood waste. The plant will leverage green hydrogen and oxygen produced through an 87MW electrolyzer, transforming Québec’s excess hydroelectricity capacity into value-added biofuels and renewable chemicals. VCR will be a major creator of quality local direct and indirect jobs during its construction and operation.

The water electrolysis plant will require an investment of about $200 million from Hydro-Québec, which will be the sole shareholder. The plant will generate some 11,100 metric tonnes of hydrogen and 88,000 metric tonnes of oxygen annually. . . .

Re: Biofuels thread

Posted: Thu Mar 04, 2021 9:04 pm
by GRA
GCC. 'Lab' results, so usual caveats:
USC study shows promising potential for giant-kelp-based biofuel with depth-cycling approach ... -kelp.html

Scientists at the USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies on Santa Catalina Island, working with private industry, report that a new aquaculture technique on the California coast significantly increases kelp growth, yielding four times more biomass than natural processes.

The researchers used a depth-cycling approach—i.e., physically moving the macroalgae between deep nutrient-rich water at night and shallow depths within the photic zone during the day to optimize growth. An open-access paper on their work appears in the journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. . . .

If it lives up to its potential, kelp is a more attractive option than the usual biofuel crops for two very important reasons. First, ocean crops do not compete for fresh water, agricultural land or artificial fertilizers. And second, ocean farming does not threaten important habitats when marginal land is brought into cultivation. . . .

However, farming kelp requires overcoming a few obstacles. To thrive, kelp has to be anchored to a substrate and only grows in sun-soaked waters to about 60 feet deep. But in open oceans, the sunlit surface layer lacks nutrients available in deeper water.

Marine BioEnergy invented the concept of depth-cycling the kelp, and USC Wrigley scientists conducted the biological and oceanographic trial.

The kelp elevator consists of fiberglass tubes and stainless-steel cables that support the kelp in the open ocean. Juvenile kelp is affixed to a horizontal beam, and the entire structure is raised and lowered in the water column using an automated winch.

Beginning in 2019, research divers collected kelp from the wild, affixed it to the kelp elevator and then deployed it off the northwest shore of Catalina Island, near Wrigley’s marine field station. Every day for about 100 days, the elevator would raise the kelp to near the surface during the day so it could soak up sunlight, then lower it to about 260 feet at night so it could absorb nitrate and phosphate in the deeper water. The researchers continually checked water conditions and temperature while comparing their kelp to control groups raised in natural conditions. . . .

Cindy Wilcox, co-founder and president of Marine BioEnergy, estimates that
it would take a Utah-sized patch of ocean to make enough kelp biofuel to replace 10% of the liquid petroleum consumed annually in the United States. One Utah would take up only 0.13% of the total Pacific Ocean.
The US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy invested $22 million in efforts to increase marine feedstocks for biofuel production, including $2 million to conduct the kelp elevator study. The Department of Energy has a study to locate a billion tons of feedstock per year for biofuels; Cindy Wilcox said the ocean between California, Hawaii and Alaska could contribute to that goal. . . .

Re: Biofuels and Synfuels Topic

Posted: Tue May 04, 2021 4:49 pm
by GRA
All GCC:
Phillips 66 progressing its conversion of California refinery to renewable fuels ... rodeo.html

In August 2020, Phillips 66 announced that it planned to reconfigure its San Francisco Refinery in Rodeo, California, to produce renewable fuels. The plant will no longer produce fuels from crude oil, but instead will make fuels from used cooking oil, fats, greases and soybean oils. (Earlier post.)

In April, the company completed the diesel hydrotreater conversion, which will ramp up to 8,000 bbl/d (120 million gallons per year) of renewable diesel production by the third quarter of 2021.

The renewable feedstocks will be primarily delivered across the Marine Terminal. Renewable feedstocks will also be delivered to the Rodeo facility using the existing railcar infrastructure, modified to reflect the elimination of butane exports. Existing equipment will also be modified to enable the offloading of local renewable feedstocks by tanker truck.

Upon completion of the roject the Rodeo facility will no longer process conventional or nonconventional crude oils, will operate fewer fired heaters, and will no longer export butanes across the existing rail rack.

The project includes other changes to Phillips 66’s facilities. The Santa Maria facility in San Luis Obispo County that currently provides crude oil feedstocks to the Rodeo facility will be idled and decommissioned. The existing Phillips 66 crude oil pipeline network from the gathering fields in central California to the Rodeo facility will no longer be necessary to support the reconfigured facility and will be active, but out of service.

To account for the idling of the Santa Maria facility and to maintain production levels during the transition process, the Project proposes to increase deliveries of crude oil across the Marine Terminal on a short-term and transitional basis.

Subject to permitting and approvals, full conversion of the refinery is expected in early 2024. Upon completion, the facility will have more than 50,000 bbl/d (800 million gallons per year) of renewable fuel production capacity.

The conversion is expected to reduce the facility’s greenhouse gas emissions by 50% and help California meet its lower-carbon objectives. . . .

Bosch, Shell, and Volkswagen develop renewable gasoline with 20% lower CO2; rollout of Blue Gasoline this year ... oline.html

Following on the introduction of R33 Blue Diesel (earlier post), Bosch, Shell, and Volkswagen have now developed a low-carbon gasoline. The new fuel, called Blue Gasoline, similarly contains up to 33% renewables, ensuring a well-to-wheel reduction in carbon emissions of at least 20% per kilometer driven.

This means a fleet of 1,000 VW Golf VIII 1.5 TSIs alone could save more than 230 metric tons of CO2 per year, assuming an annual mileage of 10,000 kilometers each. Shell will offset the remaining carbon emissions from the use of Blue Gasoline through certified offset arrangements. The initial plan is to make the fuel available at regular filling stations over the course of the year, starting in Germany. . . .

The proportion of up to 33 percent renewables is made up of biomass-based naphtha or ethanol certified by the International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC) system. One source of such naphtha is what is known as tall oil, a by-product in the production of pulp for paper. But naphtha can also be obtained from other residual and waste materials. . . .

Re: Biofuels and Synfuels Topic

Posted: Mon May 17, 2021 4:48 pm
by GRA
MBL begins first test of tropical seaweed farming for biofuels production ... 7-mbl.html
A team of researchers led by Loretta Roberson, associate scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, has installed the first seaweed farm in Puerto Rico and US tropical waters. The research array furthers the design and development of a system for offshore cultivation of tropical seaweeds to support large-scale production of biomass for biofuels and other valuable bioproducts. . . .

The ultimate goal of the project is to cost-effectively produce biomass at scale in underutilized areas of the Gulf of Mexico and tropical US Exclusive Economic Zones where year-round production is possible.

MBL received funding for this research from the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) competitive Macroalgae Research Inspiring Novel Energy Resources (MARINER) program. . . .

Re: Biofuels and Synfuels Topic

Posted: Thu May 20, 2021 4:55 pm
by GRA
Post deleted, was in wrong topic.