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Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Wed Oct 04, 2017 7:44 pm
by GRA
Via GCC:
DOE and Army TARDEC partner to advance hydrogen and fuel cell technologies ... ardec.html
The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and the US Army’s Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) will collaborate on jointly funded projects to advance progress in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

This announcement follows a workshop held by DOE in January that led to successful outcomes identifying critical needs for tactical hydrogen infrastructure in remote areas. The workshop was immediately followed by an evaluation of a military fuel cell-powered vehicle (Chevrolet Colorado ZH2) developed by General Motors and sponsored by Army TARDEC. (Earlier post.)

This vehicle’s concept marries fuel cell technology and its advantages of on-board water production, exportable electric power, and near silent operation with extreme off-road capability.

TARDEC and General Motors tested the Chevrolet Colorado ZH2 at Fort Carson, Colorado, 27-30 June 2017. Soldiers of the 4th Infantry Division and 10th Special Forces Group exercised the limits of the demonstrator to evaluate the ZH2’s off-road capabilities, power (torque) responsiveness, silent mobility, high exportable power, and fuel cell technology. . . .

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Thu Oct 05, 2017 4:30 pm
by GRA
One of the essential requirements to reduce the cost of fuel cell stacks is to enable mass production well beyond the 3,000 or so a year that Toyota said it was limited to a year or so back. Here's one such attempt. Lab work so usual caveat, via GCC:
NIST researchers devise method for high-speed, in-line process control of fuel cell membrane catalyst layers ... -nist.html
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have devised a method for high-speed, in-line process control of platinum-based catalyst layers in the membrane electrode assembly of the fuel cell. Their system may have overcome a significant hurdle to manufacturing hydrogen fuel cells by creating a way to check whether the expensive catalysts the cells need have been incorporated quickly and effectively.

Reported in a paper in the Journal of Power Sources, they demonstrated the use of multiple reflectivity-based optical methods, such as optical scatterometry and large aperture projection scatterometry (LAPS)—a new high-throughput approach developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology specifically for fuel cell manufacturing metrology—to take in-line catalyst loading measurements of carbon-supported Pt nanoparticle and Pt-alloy nano-structured thin film catalyst coated membranes. . . .

The researchers found an answer stemming from their experience measuring small objects for a completely different industry: computer chip manufacturing. But their usual approach, based on reflecting a laser’s light from a chip surface, demanded a rethink. Although expertise in optical methods for measuring features smaller than 10 nanometers on chips exists, the chips don’t speed by on a production line at 30 meters per minute, said NIST physical scientist Michael Stocker. In addition, the membrane is black, limiting the reflected light for measurement. .
. .

The team’s demonstration instrument can detect the low levels of light reflected off the tiny platinum particles as the sheet moves past at a meter or two per minute. Stocker said there are no fundamental barriers to scaling up the method or increasing the speed to meet the industry’s future needs. . . .
  • It’s all just optical engineering from this point onward. Industry can take it from here.

    —Michael Stocker

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Mon Oct 09, 2017 6:15 pm
by GRA
All via GCC:
DOE to release hydrogen safety training resource ... 9-doe.html
The US Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) are developing a hydrogen training resource focused on fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) technology and how it can be utilized for federal fleets.

Fueling infrastructure options and safety considerations are also included in the training. This release is part of a collaboration intended to provide agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance needed to assist in the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.
. . .
GM provides a few more details on SURUS fuel cell four-wheel steer concept truck ... surus.html
. . . SURUS leverages GM’s newest Hydrotec fuel cell system, autonomous capability and truck chassis components to deliver high-performance, zero-emission propulsion to minimize logistical burdens and reduce human exposure to harm. Benefits include quiet and odor-free operation, off-road mobility, field configuration, instantaneous high torque, exportable power generation, water generation and quick refueling times. . . .

SURUS was designed to form a foundation for a family of commercial vehicle solutions that leverages a single propulsion system integrated into a common chassis.

The SURUS platform is equally well-suited for adaptation to military environments where users can take advantage of flexible energy resources, field configurability and improved logistical characteristics. GM is evaluating multiple applications for SURUS, such as:
  • Utility trucks
    Mobile and emergency backup power generation
    Flexible cargo delivery systems
    Commercial freight
    Light- and medium-duty trucks, improving upon the Chevrolet Colorado ZH2 that has been evaluated by the US military under guidance of the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and is undergoing testing on bases (earlier post) (The ZH2 is the first fuel cell vehicle to wear the GM Hydrotec badge, a familial tie to the Ecotec gasoline engines.)
    Future military-specific configurations
SURUS will deliver highly mobile autonomous capability and agility in unpredictable terrain. Operating multiple vehicles in a leader-follower configuration could reduce manpower needed.

For future potential military uses, the system’s inherent low heat signature and quiet operation offer benefits in environments to reduce detection and risks. . . .

The SURUS platform leverages GM’s vast experience in fuel cell technology, high-voltage batteries and electric drive systems, autonomous driving and vehicle manufacturing. The platform features:
  • Two advanced electric drive units
    Four-wheel steering
    Lithium-ion battery system
    Gen 2 fuel cell system
    Hydrogen storage system capable of more than 400 miles of range
    Advanced propulsion power electronics
    GM truck chassis components
    An advanced, industry-leading suspension. . . .
Since April 2017, the Army has been testing the commercial Chevrolet Colorado ZH2 on its US bases to determine the viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles in military mission tactical environments. The vehicle has been operating in off-road conditions to evaluate its power generation, reduced odor, acoustic and thermal signatures, high wheel torque, extended operating range and the potential to use the byproduct water.

Military testing has shown the ZH2 reduced acoustic non-detection distance by 90% compared to current military vehicle in operation. This means the ZH2 can get 10 times closer before being detected. Leaders also observed the potential advantages for stationary power generation over diesel generators, including a significant reduction in idle noise and fuel use. Testing will continue through spring 2018. . . .
Lab result, usual caveat:
New hybrid photocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen production from water ... 6-ucf.html
Researchers at the University of Central Florida, with colleagues at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Tsinghua University, developed a new hybrid nanomaterial—a nonmetal plasmonic MoS2@TiO2 heterostructure—for highly efficient photocatalytic H2 generation from water.

As reported in an open access paper in the RSC journal Energy & Environmental Science, the new catalyst is not only able to harvest a much broader spectrum of light than other materials, but can also stand up to the harsh conditions found in seawater. . . .

Fabricating the catalyst is relatively easy and inexpensive. Yang’s team is continuing its research by focusing on the best way to scale up the fabrication, and further improve its performance so it’s possible to split hydrogen from wastewater.

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Tue Oct 10, 2017 2:17 am
by RegGuheert
GRA wrote:Lab result, usual caveat:
New hybrid photocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen production from water ... 6-ucf.html
Researchers at the University of Central Florida, with colleagues at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Tsinghua University, developed a new hybrid nanomaterial—a nonmetal plasmonic MoS2@TiO2 heterostructure—for highly efficient photocatalytic H2 generation from water.

As reported in an open access paper in the RSC journal Energy & Environmental Science, the new catalyst is not only able to harvest a much broader spectrum of light than other materials, but can also stand up to the harsh conditions found in seawater. . . .

Fabricating the catalyst is relatively easy and inexpensive. Yang’s team is continuing its research by focusing on the best way to scale up the fabrication, and further improve its performance so it’s possible to split hydrogen from wastewater.
From the original UCF article on the work:
UCFToday wrote:In many situations, producing a chemical fuel from solar energy is a better solution than producing electricity from solar panels, he said. That electricity must be stored in batteries, which degrade, while hydrogen gas is easily stored and transported.
Now there's a statement which needs quite a bit of qualification and a bit of correction. First, the correction: You'd be very hard-pressed to make the case that hydrogen is more easily transported than electricity. Nikola Tesla invented an amazingly effective electricity transportation system which has been implemented in this country. Transportation of hydrogen is much more difficult by comparison. Second, hydrogen storage may be cheaper than electricity storage when it is stored for longer periods of time. For day-to-day use, it is much safer, cheaper and more efficient to convert sunlight directly into electricity and store it in batteries. Storing energy in the form of hydrogen is orders of magnitude more expensive. There may be a time frame on the order of weeks beyond which it is cheaper to store energy as hydrogen than in batteries, but that is not a given because the production and consumption of hydrogen is so inefficient and expensive. Unfortunately, there are likely other forms of energy storage, such as ARES, which are cheaper, safer, AND more efficient than hydrogen for longer-terrm storage.

Finally, I suspect this new "highly efficient" process is not nearly as efficient or affordable as using photovoltaics and an electrolyzer if/when you want some hydrogen.

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Fri Oct 13, 2017 4:49 pm
by GRA
Via GCC:
US DOE, Japan NEDO partner to accelerate hydrogen and fuel cell technologies ... -nedo.html
The US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) will collaborate on hydrogen and fuel cell safety research and development (R&D) data sharing to accelerate progress in hydrogen technology with mutual goals of energy security, resilience, and economic growth.

DOE and NEDO will collaborate to collect and share data regarding early-stage R&D and safety of hydrogen and fuel cells, including data from hydrogen fueling stations and fundamental hydrogen research safety. . . .

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Mon Oct 16, 2017 5:47 pm
by GRA
Both via GCC:
First hydrogen station opens in Bremen
Daimler, Shell and Linde inaugurated the city of Bremen’s first hydrogen filling station, providing a refueling option on the important route between Hamburg and North Rhine-Westphalia.

The new site . . . is located directly on the Sebaldsbrück motorway exit and the Bremen interchange, and is also near the Mercedes-Benz plant in Bremen, one of Daimler AG’s largest car plants in the world. This is where the new generation of Mercedes-Benz fuel-cell vehicles is to be produced; in September, Daimler presented pre-production vehicles to the public at the International Motor Show (IAA) in Frankfurt. The GLC F-CELL is the first vehicle to combine innovative fuel-cell and battery technology in a purely electric plug-in hybrid. . . .

Germany’s Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure is therefore supporting the construction of the country’s first 50 hydrogen filling stations via its National Innovation Programme for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NIP), and has invested around €900,000 (US$1.1 million) in the construction of the facility in Bremen.
I'd really like to know how Germany is able to get these stations built for about 2/3rd the subsidies that are typical in California. Higher cost-sharing by the station owner doesn't seem to be the reason, and I think it unlikely that the permitting process is any faster or cheaper, nor are labor costs likely to be less.
DOE fuel cell technologies report finds largest growth in capacity in 2016 occurred in transportation ... doeh2.html
. . . Findings of this year’s Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report position stationary power, backup power, and material handling equipment as some of the largest current markets.

However, transportation and energy storage are showing strength as emerging sectors for hydrogen and fuel cells with approximately 62,000 fuel cells and 500 MW in fuel cell power shipped worldwide in 2016— more than double the capacity of shipments in megawatts compared to 2014. The largest growth in capacity—nearly triple—occurred in the transportation sector, and that growth can be attributed to the introduction and expansion of fuel cell light-duty vehicles from Japan and Korea to new regions around the world, including in the United States.

Industry revenues in the emerging fuel cell industry topped $1.6 billion in 2016 alone. . . .

The report notes that a major development in 2016 was the introduction of the third commercial fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), the Honda Clarity Fuel Cell, in Japan, California, the U.K. and Denmark. The Clarity Fuel Cell joined two other commercial FCEVs, the Toyota Mirai and Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell, which have cumulatively sold or leased more than 1,000 units in the US and nearly 3,000 worldwide through late 2016.

Other transportation applications such as buses and material handling also contributed to the increase in shipments.

In 2016, China emerged as a leading customer for fuel cell buses, with more than 30 deployed or ordered throughout the year.
Direct link to report:
Fuel Cell Technologies
Market Report
October 2017 ... report.pdf

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Wed Oct 18, 2017 6:34 pm
by GRA
Via GCC:
Toyota showing two new fuel cell concepts at Tokyo Motor Show: bus and car ... tafcv.html
Toyota has launched two new fuel cell vehicle concepts: the Sora fuel cell bus and the Fine Comfort Ride fuel cell car. The company will show both at the upcoming Tokyo Motor Show later this month.

Toyota plans to launch sales of a commercial model based on the Sora (an acronym for Sky, Ocean, River, Air, representing the earth’s water cycle) concept vehicle in 2018 and expects to introduce more than 100 Sora, mainly within the Tokyo metropolitan area, ahead of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. . . .

Fine-Comfort Ride concept vehicle. The “Fine-Comfort Ride” concept proposes a new form of the premium sedan by employing a flexible layout unique to electric-powered vehicles and a large amount of available electric power using hydrogen as an energy source.

The concept adopts a diamond-shaped cabin that narrows towards the rear, while being wider in all dimensions from the front to the center of the vehicle, maximizing the space of the second row seats and aerodynamic performance. It utilizes a flexible layout unique to electric-powered vehicles, adopts an in-wheel motor, positions the wheels at the very corners of the vehicle, and utilizes a body underside cover, thereby achieving high running stability and quietness suited to the premium segment. . . .
The Fine Comfort Ride's looks are even more awkward than its name, and manage to make the Prius look beautiful by comparison! Thankfully it's just a concept and I can't imagine Toyota putting this eyesore into production, unless there's someone high up in the corporation who thinks that the Mirai just isn't ugly enough.

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Thu Nov 09, 2017 6:15 pm
by GRA
Via GCC:
Australia’s CSIRO creates Future Science Platform focused on hydrogen energy systems ... csiro.html
. . . The creation of a Hydrogen FSP will support the development of technologies that allow Australia to export its solar energy, as well as providing low emissions energy solutions for Australians.
  • The opportunity for Australia is clear—we have access to vast energy resources through sun, wind, biomass, natural gas and coal, all of which can be used to produce hydrogen, allowing us to potentially become a leading exporter of low emission renewable energy. . . .

    —CSIRO Energy Director Karl Rodrigues

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Mon Nov 13, 2017 7:21 pm
by GRA
Both via GCC:
Daimler partnering to transfer its latest generation of automotive fuel cell technology to stationary applications ... imler.html
. . . Joining forces with industry leaders Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) and Power Innovations (PI), a LiteOn company, Daimler AG, with NuCellSys and supported by MBRDNA and Daimler Innovations Lab1886, will develop prototype systems starting this year for back-up and continuous power solutions for data centers and other stationary applications using automotive hydrogen fuel cell systems. . . .

With the premiere of pre-production models of the Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL, Daimler also presented its latest generation fuel cell technology: 30% smaller, 40% more power and with a size that now fits into the engine compartment of Mercedes-Benz passenger vehicles.

Convinced of the potential of fuel cell technology and hydrogen as an energy storage medium in the context of the overall energy system, the company is extending its development activities into non-transportation industries. . . .

In order to enable a 24/7 data center power supply when using renewable energy, Daimler, HPE and PI re-think power generation and incorporate hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems to supply power directly to the racks of computer servers housed in data centers. The novel concept of a “hydrogen-based” carbon-free data center utilizes hydrogen fuel cells, electrolyzers, storage, solar (photovoltaic) cells and wind turbines. The partners thereby mitigate the intermittency and variability of renewable sources. . . .
ABB to deliver first fuel cell system for Royal Caribbean; Ballard FCvelocity ... 2-abb.html
ABB will deliver the first fuel cell system to provide an energy source for a luxury cruise ship. The system will be piloted on board a Royal Caribbean International vessel. In October 2016, Royal Caribbean announced that its newest class of ships would be powered by LNG and would likely introduce the use of fuel cell technology. (Earlier post.) The ~200,000 gross ton large cruise ships—dubbed Icon class—will be delivered in the second quarters of 2022 and 2024.

The pilot installation, including control, converter and transformer technology from ABB, will generate 100 kW of energy, and has been fully developed, marinized, assembled and tested by ABB Marine & Ports. ABB selected a 100 kW FCvelocity proton exchange membrane (PEM) pure hydrogen fuel cell unit from Ballard Power Systems for the pilot system.

Last year was the first time that mobile power from fuel cells exceeded stationary installations, according to The Fuel Cell Industry Review 2016, and the maritime industry is quickly recognizing the potential of a technology that delivers emissions-free simplicity, maintainability and efficiency. . . .

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Posted: Fri Nov 17, 2017 5:41 pm
by GRA
All via GCC:
Nikola Motor selects Nel to build 16-station hydrogen refueling network spanning 2,000 miles; first two underway ... ikola.html
. . . Nel ASA will provide engineering, electrolysis, and fueling equipment. Nikola will provide the balance of plant, construction, dispensers and other station equipment.
  • The hydrogen stations will initially produce up to eight tons daily, but can also be expanded up to 32 tons per day.

    Each Nikola truck is anticipated to consume around 50-75 kgs per day.

    Each Nikola truck will store between two and three megawatt hours (mWh) of energy.

    Each station will have around 4,000 kgs of backup storage for redundancy

    Each station is anticipated to produce hydrogen at 700 bar (10,000 psi) and 350 bar (5,000 psi)

    Nikola will allow all hydrogen vehicles to fill at our stations
Nikola’s objective is to produce hydrogen through zero emission methods whenever possible by using wind, solar and hydro-electricity. Nikola is also exploring partnerships in Europe.
No locations named.
DOE: Cumulative US sales of fuel cell vehicles totaled 2,748 from June 2014 through September 2017 ... -fotw.html
. . . Of the three publicly available fuel cell models, the Toyota Mirai has sold 2,158 units.

There's a graph. 2,748 - 2,158 = 590. Clarity appears to be around 525-550, but I think that may include some of the previous gen. The Tucson appears to be no more than 150, maybe as low as 100.
Toyota introducing new EV in China in 2020, expanding scope of fuel cell feasibility study ... china.html
. . . Recently, the Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing (China) Co., Ltd. (TMEC) hydrogen station was completed for fuel cell vehicles, and verification is being carried out under a three-year plan from October using two Mirai vehicles. Toyota will also study and evaluate the feasibility of using commercial vehicles, such as buses, in China to explore the potential usage of fuel cell technology.

Fuel cell buses have already been introduced in Japan and a feasibility study on potential usage of fuel cell technology in heavy-duty trucks in the US are ongoing. (Earlier post.) Toyota is also proceeding with demonstration tests of fuel-cell vehicles with Mirai in countries such as Australia, the U.A.E., and Canada. Ultimately, Toyota aims to achieve a hydrogen-based society through verification under a range of environments. . . .