Page 1 of 2

GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Sat Feb 15, 2020 5:39 pm
by GRA
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... 5-mit.html

The study focuses on the period between 2005 and 2018 and tracks combustion emissions of various polluting compounds from various sectors, looking at every state in the contiguous United States, from season to season and year to year.

In general, the researchers find that when air pollution is generated in one state, half of that pollution is lofted into the air and carried by winds across state boundaries, to affect the health quality of out-of-state residents and increase their risk of early death.

Electric power generation is the greatest contributor to out-of-state pollution-related deaths, the findings suggest. In 2005, for example, deaths caused by sulfur dioxide emitted by power plant smokestacks occurred in another state in more than 75% of cases.

Encouragingly, the researchers found that since 2005, early deaths associated with air pollution have gone down significantly. They documented a decrease of 30% in 2018 compared to 2005, equivalent to about 30,000 avoided early deaths, or people who did not die early as a result of pollution. In addition, the fraction of deaths that occur due to emissions in other states is falling—from 53% in 2005 to 41% in 2018.

Perhaps surprisingly, this reduction in cross-state pollution also appears to be related to electric power generation: In recent years, regulations such as the Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Air Act and other changes have helped to significantly curb emissions from this sector across the country.

The researchers caution, however, that today, emissions from other sectors are increasingly contributing to harmful cross-state pollution. . . .

They looked at multiple species of pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, and fine particulates, from various emissions sectors, including electric power generation, road transportation, marine, rail, and aviation, and commercial and residential sources, at intervals of every hour of the year.

They first obtained emissions data from each of seven sectors for the years 2005, 2011, and 2018. They then used the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry transport model to track where these emissions ended up, from season to season and year to year, based on wind patterns and a pollutant’s chemical reactions to the atmosphere.

Finally, they used an epidemiologically-derived model to relate a population’s pollutant exposure and risk of early death. . . .

For example, electric power generation has the greatest range, as power plants can loft pollutants far into the atmosphere, allowing them to travel over long distances. In contrast, commercial and residential sectors generally emit pollutants that chemically do not last as long in the atmosphere. . . .

In terms of the impact on individual states, the team found that many of the northern Midwest states such as Wyoming and North Dakota are “net exporters” of pollution-related health impacts, partly because the populations there are relatively low and the emissions these states generate are carried away by winds to other states.

Those states that “import” health impacts tend to lie along the East Coast, in the path of the US winds that sweep eastward.

New York in particular is what the researchers call “the biggest importer of air pollution deaths”; 60% of air pollution-related early deaths are from out-of-state emissions. . . .

Direct link to study article:
Premature mortality related to United States cross-state air pollution
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-1983-8

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:48 am
by Oilpan4
Too bad coal was pushed as the safe alternative by anti nuclear activists.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Fri Feb 21, 2020 4:45 pm
by jjeff
They finally put out the fire at Northern Metals Recycling after many days of it burning and toxic fumes spewing in the air, much of it drafting towards the twin cities of MSP :x It was a huge pile of crushed cars and burned for days on the various plastics and other flammables in a car! People near the fire were complaining of respiratory issues and local schools closed for days. All I could think of was what goes up, must come down :(
https://www.kare11.com/article/news/loc ... 149c0bade2

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Wed Mar 04, 2020 6:02 pm
by GRA
GCC:
Researchers say world faces air pollution pandemic
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... ution.html

Air pollution is responsible for shortening people’s lives worldwide on a scale far greater than wars and other forms of violence, parasitic and vector-born diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS and smoking, according to an open-access study published in Cardiovascular Research. . . .

Using a new method of modelling the effects of various sources of air pollution on death rates, the researchers estimated that globally air pollution caused an extra 8.8 million premature deaths a year in 2015. This represents an average shortening of life expectancy of nearly three years for all persons worldwide.

In comparison, tobacco smoking shortens life expectancy by an average of 2.2 years (7.2 million deaths); HIV/AIDS by 0.7 years (1 million deaths); diseases like malaria that are carried by parasites or insects such as mosquitoes, ticks and fleas by 0.6 years (600,000 deaths); and all forms of violence (including deaths in wars) by 0.3 years (530,000 deaths).

The researchers looked at the effect of air pollution on six categories of disease: lower respiratory tract infection; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; lung cancer; heart disease; cerebrovascular disease leading to stroke; and other, non-communicable diseases, which include conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes. They found that cardiovascular diseases (heart disease and cerebrovascular disease combined) are responsible for the greatest proportion of shortened lives from air pollution: 43% of the loss in life expectancy worldwide.

They also found that air pollution had a greater effect on shortening lives in older people, with the exception of deaths in children aged under five in low income countries, such as Africa and South Asia. Globally, about 75% of deaths attributed to air pollution occur in people aged over 60 years. . . .

The researchers estimate that if air pollution was reduced by removing fossil fuel emissions, the average life expectancy worldwide would increase by just over a year, and by nearly two years if all human-made emissions were removed.

However, there are large differences between regions due to the diversity in emissions. In East Asia, which has the highest loss of life expectancy due to avoidable air pollution, three of the average of four years of lost life expectancy could be prevented by the removal of human-made emissions; whereas in Africa, where population growth is rapid and pollution from dust predominates, only 0.7 of 3.1 years lost could be prevented.

In Europe, there is an average of 2.2 years of lost life expectancy, 1.7 of which could be prevented, and in North America there is an average of 1.4 years of lost life expectancy, of which 1.1 could be prevented, mostly by phasing out fossil fuels. . . .

Limitations of the study include the fact there is uncertainty surrounding the estimates, so the size of the effect of air pollution on deaths could be larger or smaller. Nevertheless, such uncertainty also applies to other health risk factors, including smoking. . . .

There are maps showing the distribution by cause and number of years of life lost.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Wed Mar 04, 2020 9:43 pm
by goldbrick
Maybe this is a little off topic but in the summer here on the front range of CO there are days when I drive (my Leaf) instead of ride my bike to work because of the ozone levels. I've heard a lot of the ozone comes from fracking operations east of here but regardless, it's something that seems to be getting worse every year. Used to be the 'brown cloud' was the worst air problem we had but that was mostly due to dust from the sand that is put on the roads in the winter and temperature inversions. Now, it's the summer air that seems worse.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Tue Apr 21, 2020 5:53 am
by GaleHawkins
Air quality seems to have been a factor in COVID-19 deaths and people are seeing EV ownership a future option.

https://electrek.co/2020/04/09/study-p ... ic-cars/

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Tue Apr 21, 2020 12:18 pm
by Oilpan4
Problem is people are quick to over react and and shoot off their mouths but are really slow when it comes to changing their actions.
Almost all of the people who say they are going to buy electric next time will go buy a gigantic status signaling SUV.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Tue Apr 21, 2020 1:59 pm
by WetEV
Oilpan4 wrote:
Tue Apr 21, 2020 12:18 pm
Problem is people are quick to over react and and shoot off their mouths but are really slow when it comes to changing their actions.
Almost all of the people who say they are going to buy electric next time will go buy a gigantic status signaling SUV.
Hmmm I did both.

Audi e-tron.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Wed Jul 29, 2020 5:39 pm
by GRA
Related, via GCC:
AQLI: new data reveals little progress globally in reducing air pollution over the last two decades

https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... -aqli.html

Particulate air pollution continues to cut global life expectancy by nearly two years as progress in some countries counterbalances worsening air quality in others, according to the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI). . . .

New data from the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI), which converts particulate air pollution into its impact on life expectancy, shows that particulate pollution was the greatest risk to human health before COVID-19. Without strong and sustained public policy, it will be after COVID-19.

The analysis finds that particulate pollution cuts global life expectancy by nearly two years, relative to what it would be if air quality met the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. This has consistently been the case over the last two decades, with the average global decline in life expectancy from pollution remaining at two years as improvements in some countries like China were balanced out by worsening conditions in other countries.

Particulate pollution has a more devastating impact on life expectancy than communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, behavioral killers such as cigarette smoking, and even war, AQLI asserts.

In areas of Central and West Africa where diseases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria traditionally grab headlines, particulate pollution poses just as serious a health threat having a comparable impact on life expectancy. With growth in coal consumption in Africa over the next two decades projected to be triple what it was in the past two decades, recognizing particulate pollution as a possible growing problem becomes even more important.

Nearly a quarter of the global population lives in four countries in South Asia that are among the world’s most polluted: Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. People living in these countries could see their lives cut short by 5 years on average, after being exposed to pollution levels that are now 44% higher than they were two decades ago. High pollution across the entirety of Bangladesh makes it the most polluted country in the world. The most severe pollution, however, is found in parts of India, especially northern India, including the megacities of Delhi and Kolkata.

Particulate pollution is also a significant concern in Southeast Asia, where traditional pollution sources such as vehicles, powerplants and industry combine with forest and cropland fires to produce deadly concentrations. As a result, 89% of Southeast Asia’s 650 million people live in areas where particulate pollution exceeds the WHO guideline. Growing metropolises—such as Jakarta, Singapore, Ho Chi Minh, and Bangkok—bear the greatest burden. . . .

China began a “war against pollution” in 2013. Since then, three-quarters of the world’s reductions in pollution have come from China. The country has reduced particulate pollution by nearly 40%. If these reductions are sustained, Chinese citizens can expect to live about 2 years longer than they would have prior to their aggressive reforms.

The United States, Europe and Japan have likewise experienced success in reducing pollution due to strong policies that came on the heels of public calls for change. The progression of their success, however, further highlights the scale and speed of China’s progress. It took several decades and recessions for the United States and Europe to achieve the same pollution reductions that China accomplished in 5 years, while continuing to grow its economy. Even with this progress, there are still parts of the United States, Europe, Japan, and most especially China, where pollution meaningfully compromises human health. . . .

This is contrary to earlier studies. Also GCC:
Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... leeds.html

Large improvements of air quality in China during the lockdown have been widely reported, but new research shows that two pollutants harmful to human health—fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone—were only slightly reduced.

The study, by scientists from the University of Leeds, UK and the Southern University of Science and Technology, China, analyzed air pollutant concentrations from China’s national network of around 1,300 monitoring stations to quantify the response of air pollution across China during the COVID-19 lockdown.

They found that the falls in some air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were substantial whereas other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone were only slightly reduced or barely affected. The open-access study is published in the IOP Publishing journal Environmental Research Letters. . . .

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Wed Jul 29, 2020 6:50 pm
by goldbrick
I used to spend a fair amount of time in Singapore for work and I'm not surprised that most of their pollution is sourced from other countries. On the other hand, Singaporeans enjoy a level of wealth that their more polluting neighbors can only dream of. We are indeed, all in this together, one way or another.